What is a level of competence?

Link: Full text on author’s website.
Published as: Simon Grant and Cleo Sgouropoulou (2011) What is a level of competence? In: Christian M. Stracke (ed.) Competence Modelling for Human Resources Development and European Policies: Bridging Business, Education and Training. ISBN: 9783942183536

Abstract: In areas where competence can be greater or lesser, a level of competence defines a reference point that someone may have, or may not yet have, attained. Levels may be specific to an area or, often, generic, in which case they are assessed for specific areas of ability. Levels must first be defined in frameworks, and then competence concepts can be assigned levels following those frameworks. The eCOTOOL competence model offers information structures both for defining levels and for assigning them. This is intended to contribute to effective interoperability specifications. Examples of defined levels stretch back in history to craft guilds, and today they come in many forms. Examples are here presented, which the eCOTOOL model covers well. The eCOTOOL competence model offers a good way of understanding what a level of competence is.

Keywords: level, ability, skill, competence, framework, level definition, level assignment, information model.
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Concepts and Standardization in Areas Relating to Competence

Link: Concepts and standardization in areas relating to competence (pdf)

Summary: This paper reviews terminology, motivation, history and current work in areas relating to skill or competence. Many useful services, clarifying pathways within and from education to employment, self-assessment, and selection would be facilitated by better standardization of the format in which related definitions are represented, and also by a standard approach to representing the structured sets often called frameworks. To be effective, information models underlying interoperability specifications must be based on common conceptual models; the authors propose one such model as a work in progress. The authors see the way forward as reaching greater consensus about the components of competence, including intended learning outcomes, agreement on a model for frameworks allowing reuse of and comparison between components in and between frameworks, and investigation of how requirements and claims for skill and competence can be coordinated in the light of common practice in recruitment.

Copyright © 2010 IGI Global
This paper appears in the International Journal of IT Standards and Standardization Research Vol. 8, No. 2, edited by Tore Hoel, Paul A. Hollins and Jan M. Pawlowski, editor-in-chief Kai Jakobs. Copyright 2010, IGI Global, www.igi-global.com. Posted by permission of the publisher.

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A Data Model for Describing and Exchanging Personal Achieved Learning Outcomes (PALO)

Link: Reformatted text on author’s website.
Published in the International Journal of IT Standards and Standardization Research Vol. 8, No. 2, edited by Tore Hoel, Paul A. Hollins and Jan M. Pawlowski, editor-in-chief Kai Jakobs. Copyright 2010, IGI Global, www.igi-global.com.

Abstract: Employers seek people matching particular qualifications and graduates seek jobs matching their qualifications. This market is currently managed primarily using paper certificates and heterogeneous university management systems that capture achieved learning outcomes as well as corporate information systems that capture required qualifications. In the light of current trends towards increased student mobility, employability and lifelong learning, this situation is less than satisfactory. Therefore, we propose a schema in this paper that facilitates interoperable storage and management of Personal Achieved Learning Outcomes (PALO) based on a common data model. We present use case scenarios and implementations addressing these challenges and demonstrating the added value of using such a common model.

Keywords: Competences, Learner Achievements, Learning Outcomes, Outcome-Based Learning, Skills, Standards

Leap2A: A specification for e-portfolio portability and interoperability

Link: Leap2A: A specification for e-portfolio portability and interoperability (Reformatted for author’s website).
Originally published in ALT-N issue 16 [2009].

Summary: Leap2A is a specification for information portability and interoperability between electronic portfolio tools and related systems. It has been developed through close collaboration between e-portfolio system developers, to ensure immediate applicability and relative ease of implementation. It covers learner-owned or learner-focused artefacts, information and reflections that people are likely to want to use themselves or present to others, in the context of educational, personal, professional or career development, including personal abilities, achievements, activities, plans and resources. The development projects are supported by the JISC, and managed through JISC CETIS.